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Hemodynamic Monitoring Cheat Sheet

Hemodynamic Monitoring Cheat Sheet

ParametersNormal ValuesInterpretation
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)70-100 mmHgThe average pressure in the arteries throughout the cardiac cycle. It is a good indicator of the overall perfusion of the body.
Central Venous Pressure (CVP)2-6 mmHgThe pressure in the central veins, such as the superior vena cava. It is a measure of right ventricular preload.
Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP)25/8 mmHgThe pressure in the pulmonary artery. It is a measure of the afterload of the right ventricle.
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP)4-12 mmHgThe pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. It is a measure of left ventricular preload.
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)900-1400 dynes/sec/cm5The resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation. It is a measure of the afterload of the left ventricle.
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR)150-300 dynes/sec/cm5The resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation. It is a measure of the afterload of the right ventricle.
Cardiac Output (CO)4-8 L/minThe volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute. It is a measure of the overall function of the heart.
Cardiac Index (CI)2-4 L/min/m2The cardiac output divided by the body surface area. It is a measure of the cardiac output adjusted for body size.

Hemodynamic Monitoring Indications

  • Shock
  • Heart failure
  • Severe sepsis
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Major surgery
  • Traumatic injuries
  • Burns
  • Poisoning
  • Drug overdose

Hemodynamic Monitoring Complications

  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Arrhythmias
  • Thrombosis
  • Pneumothorax
  • Catheter-related bloodstream infection

Hemodynamic Monitoring Nursing Care

  • Monitor the patient’s hemodynamic parameters closely.
  • Report any changes in the patient’s hemodynamic parameters to the physician immediately.
  • Administer fluids and medications as ordered by the physician.
  • Monitor the patient for signs of infection, bleeding, arrhythmias, thrombosis, pneumothorax, and catheter-related bloodstream infection.
  • Provide patient education about hemodynamic monitoring.
Hemodynamic VariableDefinitionNormal RangeCalculation
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)Average pressure in the arteries during one cardiac cycle70-100 mmHg(2 x diastolic blood pressure + systolic blood pressure) / 3
Cardiac Output (CO)The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute4-8 L/minStroke volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)
Stroke Volume (SV)The amount of blood ejected by the heart in one contraction60-100 mL/beatEnd-diastolic volume (EDV) – End-systolic volume (ESV)
Central Venous Pressure (CVP)The pressure in the vena cava near the right atrium2-8 mmHg
Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP)The pressure in the pulmonary arterySystolic: 15-30 mmHg, Diastolic: 5-15 mmHg, Mean: 10-20 mmHg
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP)The pressure measured by a balloon-tipped catheter wedged in a pulmonary artery branch4-12 mmHg
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)The resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation800-1200 dynes/sec/cm-5(MAP – CVP) / CO x 80